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'''Simple living''' encompasses a number of different voluntary practices to [[simplicity|simplify]] one's [[lifestyle (sociology)|lifestyle]]. These may include reducing one's [[Personal property|possessions]] or increasing [[self-sufficiency]], for example. Simple living may be characterized by individuals being satisfied with what they [[need]] rather than [[want]].<ref>{{cite book|url=http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=dF1y9zdTpegC&pg=PA304#v=onepage&q&f=false|title=Choosing Simplicity|author=Linda Breen Pierce|year=2000|quote=Rather than being consumed by materialism, we choose to surround ourselves with only those material possessions we truly need or genuinely cherish|isbn=978-0-9672067-1-4}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|url=http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=AKHxP8xncfcC&lpg=PT24&dq=%22You%20have%20succeeded%20in%20life%20when%20all%20you%20really%20want%20is%20only%20what%20you%20really%20need%22&pg=PT24#v=onepage&q&f=false|title=Quotes about Happiness|author=[[Vernon Howard]]|date=|quote=You have succeeded in life when all you really want is only what you really need}}</ref> Although [[asceticism]] generally promotes living simply and refraining from [[luxury good|luxury]] and indulgence, not all proponents of simple living are ascetics.<ref>Griffiths, Michael. B., Flemming Christiansen, and Malcolm Chapman. (2010) 'Chinese Consumers: The Romantic Reappraisal’. Ethnography, Sept 2010, 11, 331–57.</ref> Simple living is distinct from those living in forced [[poverty]], as it is a voluntary lifestyle choice.
 
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Simple Living s a term that describes ones lifestyle that affects both the individual, community or the natural environment.
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==Theoretical==
   
Adherents may choose simple living for a variety of personal reasons, such as [[spirituality]], [[health]], increase in "[[quality time]]" for family and friends, [[work–life balance]], personal taste, [[frugality]], or reducing personal [[ecological footprint]] and [[Stress (medicine)|stress]]. Simple living can also be a reaction to [[Economic materialism|materialism]] and [[conspicuous consumption]]. Some cite socio-political goals aligned with the [[Anti-consumerism|anti-consumerist]] or [[anti-war movement]]s, including [[Conservation ethic|conservation]], [[degrowth]], [[social justice]], [[ethnic diversity]], [[tax resistance]] and [[sustainable development]].<ref name=NWTRCC>{{cite web|url=http://www.nwtrcc.org/practical5.php|title=Low Income/Simple Living as War Tax Resistance|publisher=NWTRCC}}</ref>
 
   
==History==
 
   
===Religious and spiritual===
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==='''Religious-basis'''===
[[Image:Gerome - Diogenes.jpg|thumb|left|[[Diogenes of Sinope|Diogenes]] living in a jar.]]
 
[[File:Amish Family in Aylmer, Ontario.jpg|thumb|150px|The [[Amish]] are known for their simple living and [[plain dress]].]]
 
A number of religious and spiritual traditions encourage simple living.<ref>Helena Echlin (December 2006) ''[http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=vekDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA92&lpg=#v=onepage&q&f=false Yoga Journal], p.92''
 
*Also see W. Bradford Swift (July/August 1996) ''[http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=fekDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA81&dq=#v=onepage&q&f=false Yoga Journal], p.81''</ref> Early examples include the [[Shramana]] traditions of [[Iron Age India]], [[Gautama Buddha]], and biblical [[Nazirite]]s (notably [[John the Baptist]]).{{cn|date=October 2012}} Various notable individuals have claimed that spiritual inspiration led them to a simple living lifestyle, such as [[Francis of Assisi]], [[Ammon Hennacy]], [[Leo Tolstoy]], [[Rabindranath Tagore]], [[Albert Schweitzer]], and [[Mohandas Gandhi]].<ref>Slocock, N. (May 2004). [http://www.tssf.org.uk/attachments/article/219/Living_a_Life_of_Simplicity.pdf "'Living a Life of Simplicity?' A Response to Francis of Assisi by Adrian House"].</ref><ref name="shi">Shi, David. ''The Simple Life''. University of Georgia Press (2001).</ref>
 
   
Simple living has traditions that stretch back to the Orient, resonating with leaders such as [[Zarathustra]], [[Buddha]], [[Laozi]], and [[Confucius]] and was heavily stressed in both [[Greco-Roman]] culture and [[Judeo-Christian]] ethics.<ref name="shi"/> [[Diogenes of Sinope]], a major figure in the ancient Greek philosophy of [[Cynicism (philosophy)|Cynicism]], claimed that a simple life was necessary for virtue, and purportedly lived in a jar.<ref>{{cite web|last=Parry|first=Richard|title=Ancient Ethical Theory|url=http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-ancient/#5|work=Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy|accessdate=16 September 2012}}</ref>
 
   
[[Plain people]] are Christian groups who have for centuries practiced lifestyles in which some forms of [[wealth]] or [[technology]] are excluded for religious or philosophical reasons. Groups include the [[Shakers]], [[Mennonites]], [[Amish]], [[Bruderhof Communities|Bruderhof]], [[Harmony Society]], and some [[Religious Society of Friends|Quakers]]. There is a Quaker belief called ''[[Testimony of Simplicity]]'' that a person ought to live her or his life simply.
 
   
[[Jean-Jacques Rousseau]] strongly praised the simple life in many of his writings, especially in his ''Discourse on the Arts and Sciences'' (1750) and ''Discourse on Inequality'' (1754).<ref>[[Peter Marshall (author)|Marshall, Peter]]. ''Nature's Web: Rethinking Our Place on Earth''. M.E. Sharpe, 1996 (pp. 235; 239–44).</ref>
 
   
===Secular===
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==='''Anarchist-basis'''===
[[Epicureanism]], based on the teachings of the [[Athens]]-based [[philosopher]] [[Epicurus]], flourished from about the fourth century BC to the third century AD. Epicureanism upheld the untroubled life as the paradigm of happiness, made possible by carefully considered choices. Specifically, Epicurus pointed out that troubles entailed by maintaining an extravagant lifestyle tend to outweigh the pleasure of partaking in it. He therefore concluded that what is necessary for happiness, bodily comfort, and life itself should be maintained at minimal cost, while all things beyond what is necessary for these should either be tempered by moderation or completely avoided.<ref>Smith, M.F. (2001). [http://www.epicurus.info/etexts/introlucretius.html#III ''Lucretius: On the Nature of Things'']. Introduction available online at Epicurius.info. Hackett Pub Co ISBN 978-0-87220-587-1</ref>
 
   
[[File:Thoreau's cabin inside.jpg|thumb|left|Reconstruction of [[Henry David Thoreau]]'s cabin on the shores of Walden Pond]]
 
[[Henry David Thoreau]], a North American [[natural history|naturalist]] and author, is often considered to have made the classic [[Secularity|secular]] statement advocating a life of simple and [[sustainable living]] in his book ''[[Walden]]'' (1854). Thoreau conducted a two year experiment living a plain and simple life on the shores of [[Walden Pond]].
 
   
In Victorian Britain, [[Henry Stephens Salt]], an admirer of Thoreau, popularised the idea of "Simplification, the saner method of living".<ref>Salt quoted in Peter C. Gould, ''Early Green Politics'', p. 22.</ref> Other British advocates of the simple life included [[Edward Carpenter]], [[William Morris]], and the members of "[[The Fellowship of the New Life]]".<ref>Gould, pp. 27–8</ref>
 
[[Charles Robert Ashbee|C.R. Ashbee]] and his followers also practiced some of these ideas, thus linking simplicity with the [[Arts and Crafts Movement]].<ref>Fiona Maccarthy, ''The Simple Life: C.R. Ashbee in the Cotswolds'' (London, 1981).</ref> British novelist [[John Cowper Powys]] advocated the simple life in his 1933 book ''A Philosophy of Solitude''.<ref>''A Philosophy of Solitude'', London, 1933. See also [[David Goodway]], ''Anarchist Seeds Beneath the Snow'' (Liverpool, 2006), pgs. 48–9, 174, for Goodway's comparison of Powys' ideas of the Simple Life to Carpenter's.</ref> [[John Middleton Murry]] and [[Max Plowman]] practised a simple lifestyle at their Aldephi Centre in Essex in the 1930s.<ref>Hardy, Dennis. ''Utopian England: Community Experiments 1900–1945'' p. 42. Hardy's book details other simple living movements in the UK in this period.</ref>
 
Irish poet [[Patrick Kavanagh]] championed a "right simplicity" philosophy based on [[ruralism]] in some of his work.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/features/2009/1123/1224259295510.html|title=Kavanagh's Lessons for Simple Living|publisher=Irish Times|date=November 23, 2009}}</ref>
 
   
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==Practice==
[[George Lorenzo Noyes]], a naturalist, [[mineralogist]], [[development criticism|development critic]], writer, and artist, is known as the Thoreau of Maine. He lived a wilderness lifestyle, advocating through his creative work a simple life and reverence for nature. During the 1920s and 1930s, the [[Southern Agrarians|Vanderbilt Agrarians]] of the [[Southern United States]] advocated a lifestyle and culture centered upon traditional and sustainable [[agrarianism|agrarian values]] as opposed to the progressive urban [[industrialism]] which dominated the Western world at that time.
 
 
[[Thorstein Veblen]] warned against the [[conspicuous consumption]] of the [[Economic materialism|materialistic]] society with ''[[The Theory of the Leisure Class]]'' (1899); [[Richard Gregg (social philosopher)|Richard Gregg]] coined the term "voluntary simplicity" in ''The Value of Voluntary Simplicity'' (1936). From the 1920s, a number of modern authors articulated both the theory and practice of living simply, among them [[Gandhism|Gandhian]] Richard Gregg, economists [[Ralph Borsodi]] and [[Scott Nearing]], anthropologist-poet [[Gary Snyder]], and [[utopia]]n fiction writer [[Ernest Callenbach]]. [[E. F. Schumacher]] argued against the notion that "bigger is better" in ''[[Small Is Beautiful]]'' (1973); and [[Duane Elgin]] continued the promotion of the simple life in ''Voluntary Simplicity'' (1981).
 
 
==Practices==
 
 
===Reducing consumption, income and possessions===
 
[[File:Portland alternative dwellings workshop.jpg|thumb|left|200px|Living simply in a [[small house movement|small dwelling]].]]
 
{{Quote box
 
|quote = You have succeeded in life when all you really want is only what you really need.
 
|source = [[Vernon Howard]]
 
|width = 22%
 
|align = right
 
}}
 
Some people practice simple living by reducing [[Consumption (economics)|consumption]]. By lowering expenditure on goods or services, it is possible to increase [[saving]]s which can lead to [[financial independence]] and the possibility of [[Retirement#Early_retirement|early retirement]]<ref>{{cite news|last=Robinson |first=Nancy |url=http://www.forbes.com/sites/financialfinesse/2012/08/02/retiring-at-age-50-is-realistic-using-unorthodox-strategies/ |title=Retiring At Age 50 Is Realistic Using These Unorthodox Strategies |work=Forbes |location=US |accessdate=20 August 2012| date=2 August 2012}}</ref> as described in [[Your Money or Your Life]] by [[Joe Dominguez]] and [[Vicki Robin]], or to reduce [[income]] and the time spent earning [[money]]. The time saved may be used to help family or [[volunteering]]. For example during the [[Christmas and holiday season]], some people often perform [[alternative giving]]. Others may spend the extra free time to improve their [[quality of life]], for example pursuing creative activities such as art and crafts (see [[starving artist]]). Developing a [[detachment (philosophy)|detachment]] from money has led some individuals, such as [[Suelo]] and [[Mark Boyle (Moneyless Man)|Mark Boyle]], to live with no money at all.<ref>{{cite news|last=Osborne |first=Hilary |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/money/blog/2009/jul/23/daniel-suelo-caveman |title=Daniel Suelo: Free spirit or freeloader? |work=The Guardian |location=UK |accessdate=20 October 2011 |date=23 July 2009}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Salter |first=Jessica |url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/greenerliving/7951968/The-man-who-lives-without-money.html |title=The man who lives without money |work=The Telegraph |location=UK |accessdate= |date=18 August 2010}}</ref>
 
 
Another approach is to focus more fundamentally on the underlying motivation of buying and consuming so many resources for a good [[quality of life]].{{Citation needed|date=September 2009}} Though our society often seeks to buy happiness, materialism very frequently fails to satisfy, and may even increase the level of stress in life. It has been said that "the making of money and the accumulation of things should not smother the purity of the soul, the life of the mind, the cohesion of the family, or the good of the society."<ref>David Shi, quoted in Elgin, Duane, ''Voluntary Simplicity'', (1993) p. 53.</ref> There are [[eco-anarchism|eco-anarchist]] groups in the United States and Canada today promoting lifestyles of simplicity. Simple living can entail only consuming the [[resource]]s needed to sustain life.
 
 
The [[grassroots]] awareness campaign, National Downshifting Week (UK)<ref>[http://www.downshiftingweek.com National Downshifting Week] official website</ref> (founded 1995) encourages participants to ''positively embrace living with less''. Campaign creator, British writer and broadcaster on [[downshifting]] and sustainable living, Tracey Smith says, "The more money you spend, the more time you have to be out there earning it and the less time you have to spend with the ones you love". National Downshifting Week encourages participants to 'Slow Down and Green Up' and contains a list of suggestions for individuals, companies, children and schools to help adopt green or eco-friendly policies and habits, develop corporate social and environmental responsibility in the workplace, and create eco-protocols and lessons that work alongside the national curriculum, respectively.
 
 
Reducing [[personal property|possessions]] or the size of [[home]] can also form part of simple living. The 100 Thing Challenge is a grassroots movement to whittle down possessions to a mere 100 items, with the aim of decluttering and simplifying people's lives.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1812048,00.html|title=How to Live with Just 100 Things|author=Lisa McClaughlin|date=June 5, 2008|publisher=[[Time (magazine)|Time]]}}</ref> The [[small house movement]] includes individuals who chose to live in small mortgage-free low-impact dwellings, such as [[log cabin]]s or [[beach hut]]s.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-16348594|title=Less is more: Simple living in small spaces|publisher=BBC News | date=28 December 2011}}</ref>
 
 
===Increasing self-sufficiency===
 
[[Image:Forestgarden2.jpg|thumb|right|200px|[[Robert Hart (horticulturist)|Robert Hart]]'s [[Forest gardening|forest garden]] in Shropshire, England.]]
 
One way to simplify life is to get [[Back-to-the-land movement|back-to-the-land]] and grow your own food, as increased [[self-sufficiency]] reduces dependency on money and the [[economy]]. [[Tom Hodgkinson]] believes the key to a free and simple life is to stop consuming and start producing.<ref>{{cite book|title=How To Be Free|author=Tom Hodgkinson|year=2006|url=http://books.google.co.uk/books/about/How_to_be_free.html?id=7pZWAAAAYAAJ&redir_esc=y}}</ref>
 
 
[[Forest gardening]], developed by simple living adherent [[Robert Hart (horticulturist)|Robert Hart]], is a low-maintenance plant-based food production system based on woodland ecosystems, incorporating fruit and nut trees, shrubs, herbs, vines and perennial vegetables.<ref>{{cite book|title=Forest gardening: Cultivating an edible landscape|author=Robert Hart|page=97|url=http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=N01940btQAQC&lpg=PA97&dq=forest%20gardening%20robert%20hart%20simple%20living&pg=PA97#v=onepage&q&f=false}}</ref> Hart created a model forest garden from a 0.12 acre (500&nbsp;m²) orchard on his farm at [[Wenlock Edge]] in [[Shropshire]].<ref>{{cite book|title=Forest Gardening|author=Robert Hart|year=1996|page=45|url=http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=N01940btQAQC&lpg=PA97&dq=forest%20gardening%20robert%20hart%20simple%20living&pg=PA45#v=onepage&q&f=false}}</ref>
 
 
The idea of [[food miles]], the number of miles a given item of food or its ingredients has travelled between the farm and the table, is used by simple living advocates to argue for locally grown food. This is now gaining mainstream acceptance, as shown by the popularity of books such as ''[[The 100-Mile Diet]],'' and [[Barbara Kingsolver]]'s ''[[Animal, Vegetable, Miracle: A Year of Food Life]].'' In each of these cases, the authors devoted a year to reducing their carbon footprint by eating locally.<ref>Taylor, K. (August 8, 2007). [http://www.nysun.com/arts/year-i-saved-the-world/60056/ "The Year I Saved The World."] New York: ''The Sun."</ref>
 
 
City dwellers can also produce fresh home grown fruit and vegetables in [[Container garden|pot gardens]] or miniature indoor greenhouses. Tomatoes, lettuce, spinach, Swiss chard, peas, strawberries, and several types of herbs can all thrive in pots. [[Jim Merkel]] says that a person "could sprout seeds. They are tasty, incredibly nutritious, and easy to grow... We grow them in wide mouthed mason jars with a square of nylon window screen screwed under a metal ring".<ref>Merkel, Jim. Radical Simplicity. British Columbia: New Society, 2003. Print, 170–71.</ref> One argument against gardening at home is how often people begin a garden and later stop it. Farmer Matt Moore spoke on this issue: "How does it affect the consumer to know that broccoli takes 105 days to grow a head?," [...] "The supermarket mode is one of plenty — it's always stocked. And that changes our sense of time. How long it takes to grow food — that's removed in the marketplace. They don't want you to think about how long it takes to grow, because they want you to buy right now".<ref name="Feb 2010">Mark, Jason. "How Does Your Garden Grow? Watch and See" food.change.org. Sustainable Food. 26 Feb 2010. Web.</ref> One way to change this viewpoint is also suggested by Mr. Moore. He placed a video installation in the produce section of a grocery store that documented the length of time it took to grow certain vegetables.<ref name="Feb 2010"/> This raises awareness in people of the length of time actually needed for gardens and could easily be combined with online lectures to help new gardeners.
 
 
The [[DIY ethic|do it yourself ethic]] refers to the principle of undertaking necessary tasks oneself rather than having others, who are more skilled or experienced, complete them for you.
 
 
===Reconsidering technology===
 
People who practice simple living have diverse views on the role of technology. For example, people who eschew all technology are often referred to as [[Luddite]]s or [[neo-Luddism|neo-Luddites]].<ref name = Luddites>Sale, K. (February 1997). [http://mondediplo.com/1997/02/20luddites "America's New Luddites."] Le Monde diplomatique.</ref> Others, like [[Scott Nearing]], are skeptical about how humanity will use new technology, citing destructive inventions such as [[nuclear weapon]]s.<ref>{{cite book|author=Scott Nearing|title=Civilization and Beyond |page=101 |year=2006 |url=http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=1NeqUvTqGEcC&pg=PA101&dq=#v=onepage&q&f=false}}</ref> Although simple living is often a [[secular]] pursuit, it may still involve reconsidering personal definitions of [[appropriate technology]], as [[Anabaptist]] groups such as the [[Amish]] or [[Mennonites]] have done.
 
 
Other proponents see cutting-edge technologies as a way to make a simple lifestyle within mainstream culture easier and more sustainable. They argue that the [[internet]] can reduce an individual's [[carbon footprint]] through [[telecommuting]] and paper usage. Some have also calculated their energy consumption and have shown that one can live simply and in an emotionally satisfying way by using much less energy than is used in western countries.<ref>[http://www.speakingtree.in/spiritual-blogs/masters/self-improvement/how-to-live-simply-and-in-a-sustainable-way How to Live Simply and in a Sustainable Way]</ref> Technologies they may embrace include computers, [[photovoltaic array]]s, [[wind turbine|wind]] and [[water turbine]]s. However others, like [[Evgeny Morozov]], warn that tools like the internet can facilitate [[mass surveillance]] and [[political repression]].<ref>{{cite book|author=Evgeny Morozov|title=The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom |page= |year=2011 |url=}}</ref>
 
 
[[Advertising]] is criticised for encouraging a consumerist mentality. Many advocates of simple living tend to agree that cutting out, or cutting down on, [[television]] viewing is a key ingredient in simple living. Some see the Internet, [[podcast]]ing, [[community radio]] or [[pirate radio]] as viable alternatives.{{Citation needed|date=January 2010}}
 
 
===Simplifying diet===
 
Another practice is the adoption of a simplified [[diet (nutrition)|diet]]. Diets that may simplify domestic food production and consumption include [[veganism|vegan diets]] and the [[Brahmacharya#Diet|Gandhi diet]]. In the [[United Kingdom]], the [[Movement for Compassionate Living]] was formed by Kathleen and Jack Jannaway in 1984, to spread the [[vegan]] message and promote simple living and self-reliance as a remedy against the [[exploitation]] of humans, animals, and the Earth.
 
 
==Politics and activism==
 
 
===Environmentalism===
 
Simple living may be undertaken by [[Environmentalism|environmentalists]]. For example, [[Green party|Green parties]] often advocate simple living as a consequence of their "[[Four Pillars of the Green Party|four pillars]]" or the "Ten Key Values" of the [[Green Party of the United States]]. This includes, in policy terms, their rejection of [[genetic modification]] and [[nuclear power]] and other technologies they consider to be hazardous. The [[green movement|Greens]]' support for simplicity is based on the reduction in natural resource usage and environmental impact. This concept is expressed in [[Ernest Callenbach]]'s "green triangle" of ecology, [[frugality]] and health.
 
[[File:PeacePark.jpg|thumb|right|The [[White House Peace Vigil]], started by simple living adherent [[Thomas (activist)|Thomas]] in 1981.]]
 
Many with similar views avoid involvement even with [[green politics]] as compromising simplicity, however, and advocate forms of [[green anarchism]] that attempt to implement these principles at a smaller scale, e.g. the [[ecovillage]]. [[Deep ecology]], a belief that the world does not exist as a resource to be freely exploited by humans, proposes [[Habitat conservation|wilderness preservation]], [[human population control]] and simple living.<ref>{{cite book|title=International Encyclopedia of Environmental Politics|author=John Barry|coauthor=E. Gene Frankland|publisher=Routledge|year=2002|page=161|url=http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=YTB4OMgsxIEC&pg=PA161&dq=#v=onepage&q&f=false}}</ref>
 
 
===Anti-war===
 
The alleged relationship between [[economic growth]] and [[war]], when fought for control and exploitation of natural and human resources, is considered a good reason for promoting a simple living lifestyle. Avoiding the perpetuation of the [[resource curse]] is a similar objective of many simple living adherents.
 
 
[[Anti-war movement|Opposition to war]] has led peace [[Activism|activists]], such as [[Ammon Hennacy]] and [[Ellen Thomas]], to a form of [[tax resistance]] in which they reduce their income below the [[income tax threshold|tax threshold]] by taking up a simple living lifestyle.<ref name="NWTRCC"/><ref>[http://sniggle.net/Experiment/index.php?entry=19Mar05&showyear=2005 Picket Line Annual Report]</ref> These individuals believe that their government is engaged in immoral, unethical or destructive activities such as war, and paying taxes inevitably funds these activities.<ref name=NWTRCC />
 
 
==Economics==
 
A new economics movement has been building since the UN conference on the environment in 1972,<ref>United Nations Environment Program (1972) [http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=97 Report of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment]. Stockholm 1972. Retrieved on March 24, 2008</ref> and the publication that year of ''Only One Earth'', ''[[The Limits to Growth]]'', and ''Blueprint For Survival'', followed in 1973 by ''[[Small Is Beautiful]]: Economics As If People Mattered.''<ref name=Robertson>Robertson, James (2005) [http://www.jamesrobertson.com/book/neweconomicsofsustainabledevelopment.pdf "The New Economics of Sustainable Development"]. A Briefing for Policy Makers. Report for the European Commission. ISBN 0-7494-3093-1</ref>
 
 
Recently, David Wann has introduced the idea of “simple prosperity” as it applies to a [[sustainable]] lifestyle. From his point of view, and as a point of departure for what he calls real [[sustainability]], “it is important to ask ourselves three fundamental questions: what is the point of all our commuting and consuming? What is the economy for? And, finally, why do we seem to be unhappier now than when we began our initial pursuit for rich abundance?”<ref>Wann, David. ''Simple Prosperity: Finding Real Wealth in a Sustainable Lifestyle''. New York, St. Martin's Griffin, 2007. ISBN 978-0-312-36141-9</ref> In this context, simple living is the opposite of our modern quest for affluence and, as a result, it becomes less preoccupied with quantity and more concerned about the preservation of cities, traditions and nature.
 
 
A reference point for this new economics can be found in [[James Robertson (activist)|James Robertson]]'s ''A New Economics of Sustainable Development,''<ref name = Robertson/> and the work of thinkers and activists, who participate in his ''Working for a Sane Alternative'' network and program. According to Robertson, the shift to sustainability is likely to require a widespread shift of emphasis from raising incomes to reducing costs.
 
 
The principles of the new economics, as set out by Robertson, are the following:
 
*systematic [[empowerment]] of people (as opposed to making and keeping them dependent), as the basis for people-centred development
 
*systematic conservation of resources and [[environment (biophysical)|the environment]], as the basis for environmentally sustainable development
 
*evolution from a “wealth of nations” model of economic life to a one-world model, and from today's inter-national economy to an ecologically sustainable, decentralising, multi-level one-world economic system
 
*restoration of [[political]] and [[ethical]] factors to a central place in economic life and thought
 
*respect for [[Qualitative data|qualitative]] values, not just quantitative values
 
 
==See also==
 
{{Portal|Ecology|Environment|Sustainable development}}
 
<div style="column-count:3;-moz-column-count:3;-webkit-column-count:3">
 
*[[Asceticism]]
 
*[[Affluenza]]
 
*[[Anti-consumerism]]
 
*[[Car-free movement]]
 
*[[Christian views on poverty and wealth]]
 
*[[Conspicuous consumption]]
 
*[[Corporate poverty]]
 
*[[Degrowth]]
 
*[[Downshifting]]
 
*[[Financial independence]]
 
*[[Freeganism]]
 
*[[Frugality]]
 
*[[Homesteading]]
 
*[[Intentional community]]
 
*[[Intentional living]]
 
*[[Mottainai]]
 
*[[Organic farming]]
 
*[[Otium]]
 
*[[Over-consumption]]
 
*[[Planned obsolescence]]
 
*[[Refusal of work]]
 
*[[Slow Movement]]
 
*[[Slow living]]
 
*[[Small house movement]]
 
*[[Survivalism]]
 
*[[Thrifting]]
 
*[[Walden]]
 
*[[Wu-wei]]
 
*[[WWOOF|Wwoofing]]
 
</div>
 
 
==Notes and references==
 
{{Reflist|2}}
 
 
==Further reading==
 
*[[Helen and Scott Nearing]] (1970) ''The Good Life: Helen and Scott Nearing's Sixty Years of Self-Sufficient Living'', Schocken
 
*[[Vernard Eller]] (1973) [http://www.hccentral.com/eller3/index.html ''The Simple Life''], ISBN 0-8028-1537-5
 
*Dolly Freed (1978) ''Possum Living: How to Live Well Without a Job and with (Almost) No Money'' 2010 edition ISBN 0-9820539-3-2
 
*[[Duane Elgin]] (1981, revised 1993 and 2010) ''Voluntary Simplicity'', Harper, ISBN 978-0-06-177926-8
 
*Charles Long (1986) ''How to Survive Without a Salary: Living the Conserver Lifestyle''. 1996 edition ISBN 1-894622-37-5
 
*[[Wendell Berry]] (1990) ''What Are People For?'', North Point Press, ISBN 0-86547-437-0
 
*[[Vicki Robin]] and Joe Dominguez (1992) ''Your Money or Your Life'', Viking. ''Your Money or Your Life: Revised and Updated for the 21st Century'', published by [[Penguin Books]] in December 2008 by Vicki Robin with Monique Tilford and contributor Mark Zaifman.
 
*Edward Romney (1992) ''Living Well on Practically Nothing'' 2001 edition ISBN 1-58160-282-0
 
*Janet Luhrs (1997) ''The Simple Living Guide: A Sourcebook for Less Stressful, More Joyful Living'', ISBN 0-553-06796-6
 
*Amy Dacyzyn (1998) ''The Complete Tightwad Gazette: Promoting Thrift as a Viable Alternative Lifestyle.'', ISBN 0-375-75225-0
 
*John de Graaf, David Wann and Thomas H. Naylor (2002) ''Affluenza'', ISBN 1-57675-199-6
 
*Jacob Lund Fisker (2010) ''Early Retirement Extreme: A philosophical and practical guide to financial independence'', ISBN 978-1453601211
 
 
==External links==
 
{{Commons category|Simple living}}
 
*[http://www.pbs.org/kcts/affluenza/ Affluenza: PBS Program on the Epidemic of Overconsumption]
 
*[http://www.nwfriends.org/wp-content/uploads/2007/09/the-testimony-of-quaker-simplicity.pdf The Testament Of Quaker Simplicity]
 
*[http://montreal.degrowth.org Degrowth in the Americas]
 
[[Category:Green Glossary]]
 
[[Category:Sustainable living]]
 
 
[[Category:Lifestyle]]
 
[[Category:Lifestyle]]

Latest revision as of 17:52, 27 February 2015

Simple Living s a term that describes ones lifestyle that affects both the individual, community or the natural environment.

Theoretical

Religious-basis

Anarchist-basis

Practice